Philosophy and Proofs
Atheism includes any philosophy which claims that no God or gods exist, including any rational or reasoning creator of the universe.
Christianity is the philosophy that claims that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and Jewish Messiah (or Christ); that he was crucified, died and was buried, and rose again three days later; that his death was an atoning sacrifice for the sins of his followers; and that placing one's trust in Jesus is how any sinful person can be forgiven and made righteous before their creator.
Empiricism describes any philosophy which claims that all knowledge originates in experience, denying the validity of both deductive reasoning and divine revelation.
Islam refers to the specific philosophy of the Muslims, a monotheistic and unitarian belief system declared by Muhammad in 610 AD and described in the book known as the Qur'an.
Monotheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is only one supreme creator of the universe.
Open theism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is a supreme creator of the universe who does not foreknow the outcome of human choices.
Pantheism denotes any philosophy which claims that god and the universe are identical.
Polytheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there are multiple supreme creators of the universe.
Rationalism describes any philosophy that claims that beliefs and opinions should always be logical, deductive conclusions rather than being based on experience, observations, religious teachings, or divine revelation.
Theism includes any philosophy which claims that some kind of God or gods exist.
Trinitarianism is the philosophy that there is only one God in terms of essence or being; and that the one God is revealed through three eternally distinct persons, specifically, the Father, the Son (Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit. Trinitarianism is unique to Christianity.
Unitarianism refers to any philosophy which claims that divine sovereignty is not shared in any way.
In Printed Form
Along with numerous other authors including Don Landis, Bodie Hodge and Roger Patterson, Timothy McCabe contributes analyses of various world religions and cults in this volume from Master Books.
"If EVERYTHING in the Bible is Gospel truth, then which is true? John Ch.18 V.9 or John Ch.17 V.12?"
I'm afraid I don't understand your question. These two verses say the same thing. In fact, the verse in John 18:9 is a direct reference to the message also contained in John 17:12. Here are the verses: John 17:12 (Christ is speaking to the Father) "While I was with them, I was keeping them in Your name which You have given Me; and I guarded them and not one of them perished but the son of perdition, so that the Scripture would be fulfilled.
"Is there a question to which you all would give the same - or almost the same - answer?"
I certainly can't speak authoritatively for the opinion of anyone other than myself, but it seems to me that everyone can easily be convinced to agree that if something is, then it is; and also that nothing can both be and not be at the same time and in the same way. In other words, the Laws of Logic are valid. An interesting point to note, however, is that holding to the Laws of Logic can only be rationally justified under Christian assumptions.
"If god is perfect, how did he manage to create imperfection?"
In answer, I will assume this question is referring essentially to sinful humans and fallen angels (or demons). So, rephrased, what I understand this question to be asking is how a perfect God could have created sinful people. Self-described Christians generally offer, to my knowledge, one of three answers to this. 1.