Philosophy and Proofs
Atheism includes any philosophy which claims that no God or gods exist, including any rational or reasoning creator of the universe.
Christianity is the philosophy that claims that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and Jewish Messiah (or Christ); that he was crucified, died and was buried, and rose again three days later; that his death was an atoning sacrifice for the sins of his followers; and that placing one's trust in Jesus is how any sinful person can be forgiven and made righteous before their creator.
Empiricism describes any philosophy which claims that all knowledge originates in experience, denying the validity of both deductive reasoning and divine revelation.
Islam refers to the specific philosophy of the Muslims, a monotheistic and unitarian belief system declared by Muhammad in 610 AD and described in the book known as the Qur'an.
Monotheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is only one supreme creator of the universe.
Open theism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is a supreme creator of the universe who does not foreknow the outcome of human choices.
Pantheism denotes any philosophy which claims that god and the universe are identical.
Polytheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there are multiple supreme creators of the universe.
Rationalism describes any philosophy that claims that beliefs and opinions should always be logical, deductive conclusions rather than being based on experience, observations, religious teachings, or divine revelation.
Theism includes any philosophy which claims that some kind of God or gods exist.
Trinitarianism is the philosophy that there is only one God in terms of essence or being; and that the one God is revealed through three eternally distinct persons, specifically, the Father, the Son (Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit. Trinitarianism is unique to Christianity.
Unitarianism refers to any philosophy which claims that divine sovereignty is not shared in any way.
In Printed Form
Along with numerous other authors including Don Landis, Bodie Hodge and Roger Patterson, Timothy McCabe contributes analyses of various world religions and cults in this volume from Master Books.
"If, as you claim, morality is obeying god, how do you know that obeying god is good? Isn't that totally circular?"
If morality is obeying god, then obeying god is morality. If we grant the former, then the latter follows by tautological necessity. Is it circular? Insofar as tautologies are circular, sure. Here is another circular tautology: If 2 + 2 = 4, then 4 = 2 + 2. Totally circular. Malachi 3:18; Romans 4:15, 5:13; 1 John 3:4.
"Why doesn't prayer work, when the bible promises that it will (John 14:14, for example)?"
In John 14:14, Jesus says "If you ask Me anything in My name, I will do it." In modern western "Christian" culture, the idea of praying in Jesus' name is often understood to mean appending "...in Jesus' name" to the end of our prayers.
"What's an easy way to demonstrate that Atheism is false?"
If Atheism is true, then Everything is ultimately the direct result of purely random, uncoordinated and undependable accidents. Note that "Everything" includes Our Conclusions. If Our Conclusions are ultimately the direct result of purely random, uncoordinated and undependable accidents, then Our Conclusions are entirely random and undependable. No Atheist believes that his own conclusions are random and undependable, so no Atheist really believes in Atheism.