Philosophy and Proofs
Atheism includes any philosophy which claims that no God or gods exist, including any rational or reasoning creator of the universe.
Christianity is the philosophy that claims that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and Jewish Messiah (or Christ); that he was crucified, died and was buried, and rose again three days later; that his death was an atoning sacrifice for the sins of his followers; and that placing one's trust in Jesus is how any sinful person can be forgiven and made righteous before their creator.
Empiricism describes any philosophy which claims that all knowledge originates in experience, denying the validity of both deductive reasoning and divine revelation.
Islam refers to the specific philosophy of the Muslims, a monotheistic and unitarian belief system declared by Muhammad in 610 AD and described in the book known as the Qur'an.
Monotheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is only one supreme creator of the universe.
Open theism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is a supreme creator of the universe who does not foreknow the outcome of human choices.
Pantheism denotes any philosophy which claims that god and the universe are identical.
Polytheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there are multiple supreme creators of the universe.
Rationalism describes any philosophy that claims that beliefs and opinions should always be logical, deductive conclusions rather than being based on experience, observations, religious teachings, or divine revelation.
Theism includes any philosophy which claims that some kind of God or gods exist.
Trinitarianism is the philosophy that there is only one God in terms of essence or being; and that the one God is revealed through three eternally distinct persons, specifically, the Father, the Son (Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit. Trinitarianism is unique to Christianity.
Unitarianism refers to any philosophy which claims that divine sovereignty is not shared in any way.
In Printed Form
Along with numerous other authors including Don Landis, Bodie Hodge and Roger Patterson, Timothy McCabe contributes analyses of various world religions and cults in this volume from Master Books.
"Jesus explicitly says "Many will say to ME (Jesus) LORD LORD, on that day... and I will say to them Depart from here ye that work iniquity" Full context Matthew 7:21-23. What is the Christian's response?"
I'm sorry, but response to what, exactly? I'm really not sure what you are looking for in your question. Here is the full verse and a little more context: Matthew 7:21-27 (NASB) "Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter.
"Why am I here? Why do I exist? What is my purpose?"
According to Christ, the greatest commandment is to "love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength" (Mark 12:30). As our greatest command, it is the thing we most ought to do. We exist to love God. How are we to love God? What exactly does that mean? The apostle John tells us that love for God is to obey Him (1 John 5:3).
"Where is the justice in punishing us for Adam's sin?"
According to scripture, we are not punished for Adam's sin (Ezekiel 18). Rather, Adam's fall from perfection has impacted us (Romans 5). For example, if you are descended from a dog, you will be a dog. If you are descended from a parrot, you will be a parrot. If you are descended from a sinner, you will be a sinner. We have inherited Adam's sin-nature, not Adam's punishment. Thus, we are not punished for Adam's sin, but rather, we are punished for our own sin.