Philosophy and Proofs
Atheism includes any philosophy which claims that no God or gods exist, including any rational or reasoning creator of the universe.
Christianity is the philosophy that claims that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and Jewish Messiah (or Christ); that he was crucified, died and was buried, and rose again three days later; that his death was an atoning sacrifice for the sins of his followers; and that placing one's trust in Jesus is how any sinful person can be forgiven and made righteous before their creator.
Empiricism describes any philosophy which claims that all knowledge originates in experience, denying the validity of both deductive reasoning and divine revelation.
Islam refers to the specific philosophy of the Muslims, a monotheistic and unitarian belief system declared by Muhammad in 610 AD and described in the book known as the Qur'an.
Monotheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is only one supreme creator of the universe.
Open theism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is a supreme creator of the universe who does not foreknow the outcome of human choices.
Pantheism denotes any philosophy which claims that god and the universe are identical.
Polytheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there are multiple supreme creators of the universe.
Rationalism describes any philosophy that claims that beliefs and opinions should always be logical, deductive conclusions rather than being based on experience, observations, religious teachings, or divine revelation.
Theism includes any philosophy which claims that some kind of God or gods exist.
Trinitarianism is the philosophy that there is only one God in terms of essence or being; and that the one God is revealed through three eternally distinct persons, specifically, the Father, the Son (Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit. Trinitarianism is unique to Christianity.
Unitarianism refers to any philosophy which claims that divine sovereignty is not shared in any way.
In Printed Form
Along with numerous other authors including Don Landis, Bodie Hodge and Roger Patterson, Timothy McCabe contributes analyses of various world religions and cults in this volume from Master Books.
"Given that some parts of the Bible are literally true and others are metaphors or parables, how do you decide which is which?"
It would be impossible to speak comprehensively to this, but there are certain factors that are fairly common that can be pointed to in answer to this question. First, it's important to note that this question not only applies to the Bible, but to absolutely any work of literature.
"How does your particular faith conceive of vegetarianism and why?"
While there is no scriptural command for all people of today to be vegetarians, the Bible does have quite a bit to say about eating meat, or abstaining from it. Initially, Adam and Eve, the two first people, and all of their offspring, were vegetarians. They were told by God what they were allowed to eat, and meat was not included.
"Is it possible for God to be both all-loving and all-powerful if he allows Hell in the form of eternal suffering and torture?"
What is intended by the phrase "all-loving"? Does it mean that God loves everyone and everything? A God like this loves evil. He loves rape, murder, Satanism, the hatred of Himself, idolatry, etc. He loves the rejection of love. Such a God would love hell and would love sending people to it. Thus, if that is what it means for there to be a God who is all-loving, then the answer to the question is certainly, an all loving God could send people to hell for eternal suffering and torture.