Philosophy and Proofs
Atheism includes any philosophy which claims that no God or gods exist, including any rational or reasoning creator of the universe.
Christianity is the philosophy that claims that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and Jewish Messiah (or Christ); that he was crucified, died and was buried, and rose again three days later; that his death was an atoning sacrifice for the sins of his followers; and that placing one's trust in Jesus is how any sinful person can be forgiven and made righteous before their creator.
Empiricism describes any philosophy which claims that all knowledge originates in experience, denying the validity of both deductive reasoning and divine revelation.
Islam refers to the specific philosophy of the Muslims, a monotheistic and unitarian belief system declared by Muhammad in 610 AD and described in the book known as the Qur'an.
Monotheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is only one supreme creator of the universe.
Open theism refers to any philosophy which claims that there is a supreme creator of the universe who does not foreknow the outcome of human choices.
Pantheism denotes any philosophy which claims that god and the universe are identical.
Polytheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there are multiple supreme creators of the universe.
Rationalism describes any philosophy that claims that beliefs and opinions should always be logical, deductive conclusions rather than being based on experience, observations, religious teachings, or divine revelation.
Theism includes any philosophy which claims that some kind of God or gods exist.
Trinitarianism is the philosophy that there is only one God in terms of essence or being; and that the one God is revealed through three eternally distinct persons, specifically, the Father, the Son (Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit. Trinitarianism is unique to Christianity.
Unitarianism refers to any philosophy which claims that divine sovereignty is not shared in any way.
In Printed Form
Along with numerous other authors including Don Landis, Bodie Hodge and Roger Patterson, Timothy McCabe contributes analyses of various world religions and cults in this volume from Master Books.
"If Jesus really was God, and he shares an equal part of the trinity (meaning they are all coequal; none are above each other) then why does Jesus say in John 14:28: My Father is GREATER than I?"
Being co-equal is not intended as a mathematical equality and does not necessitate that none is in charge of another. The scriptures talk about the equality of the Father and Son in John 5:18, where John states "For this reason therefore the Jews were seeking all the more to kill Him, because He not only was breaking the Sabbath, but also was calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God.
"If God said "Thou shalt not kill" then why did he flood the whole world leaving only Noah and his family alive, and how is the destruction of Sodom justified (killing people for engaging in "immoral" sex), is God exempted from morality?"
If you have small children, you may have told them that they are not allowed to answer the door, or to talk to strangers. Since they are your children, it is morally wrong for them to disobey you, at least in any circumstance where your commands do not go directly against God's commands (Ephesians 6:1; Colossians 3:20). This means that it would be morally wrong for your children to answer the door, or to talk to strangers, because in so doing, they would be disobeying you.
"Aren't Allah, Brahman and Yahweh just different names for the same God?"
No. Allah is a generic Arabic term for an ultimate creator God, and could be applied by Arabic speaking peoples to any ultimate creator God, whether He be the God of the Sikhs, the Muslims, the Christians, or the Jews; while Yahweh is the personal name of the God of Christians or Jews only (roughly translated "THE EXISTING ONE"); and Brahman is the non-personal God specific to Hinduism and related religions.