Pantheism denotes any philosophy which claims that god and the universe are identical.
Keywords: Pantheism, Philosophies, Philosophy, Rational, Justification, Assumption, Presupposition, Contradiction, Reason, Universal Truth.
Pantheistic claims are false .
Humans assume the universal truth that all contradictions are false. Any worldview that does not allow for this assumption to be rationally justified is deductively false.
Premise 1: If absolute ultimacy is shared, then universal truth claims are believed without reason.
Premise 2: Under pantheism, absolute ultimacy is shared by the fundamental elements of the universe.
Conclusion: Therefore, under pantheism, universal truth claims are believed without reason.
If pantheistic claims are true, there is no reason to believe universal truth claims, including universal noncontradiction. There is then no reason to believe that contradictory claims are deductively false, thereby making pantheistic claims themselves deductively false.
This Argument from Reason demonstrates that pantheism is false.
In Printed Form
Along with numerous other authors including Don Landis, Bodie Hodge and Roger Patterson, Timothy McCabe contributes analyses of various world religions and cults in this volume from Master Books.
"Does evolution (and with that, the evils that have occurred in the name of natural selection, prior to the fall of man) disprove the existence of God?"
In short, no. There is absolutely no evidence that evolution, in the sense in which this question is referring to it, has ever happened. Evidence of the lack of evidence includes the "theory" of Punctuated Equilibrium, developed by evolutionary paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould. One of the celebrated functions of this theory is its demonstration of why, if evolution were actually true, there would be no fossil evidence for it.
"According to Christianity, do those of Jewish faith go to hell for not accepting that Jesus was the Son of God?"
Yes. Everyone has earned their place in hell, myself included (Romans 3:23, 6:23; Revelation 21:8). The only way that God has provided for us to get out of what we deserve is by trusting in the person and work of Jesus Christ (Romans 10:9-10; John 6:29). Everyone who denies Jesus their entire life is in turn denied by Jesus before His Father in heaven -- Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Hindu, Atheist, Agnostic, etc (Matthew 10:33).
"Given that some parts of the Bible are literally true and others are metaphors or parables, how do you decide which is which?"
It would be impossible to speak comprehensively to this, but there are certain factors that are fairly common that can be pointed to in answer to this question. First, it's important to note that this question not only applies to the Bible, but to absolutely any work of literature.