Polytheism refers to any philosophy which claims that there are multiple supreme creators of the universe.
Keywords: Polytheism, Philosophy, Multiple, Gods, Irrational, False, Contradictory, Creation, Deductive, Argument From Reason.
Polytheistic claims are false .
Humans assume that all contradictions are false. Any worldview that does not allow for this assumption to be rationally justified is deductively false.
Premise 1: If anyone is not the author of every aspect of creation, then his authority is insufficient to rationally guarantee the behavior of creation.
Premise 2: Under polytheism, no one is the author of every aspect of creation.
Conclusion: Therefore, under polytheism, no one has the authority to rationally guarantee the behavior of creation.
Humans assume that creation is non-contradictory. Under polytheism, there can ultimately be no reason to hold to this assumption, making it an irrational assumption.
This Argument from Reason therefore demonstrates that polytheism is deductively false.
In Printed Form
Along with numerous other authors including Don Landis, Bodie Hodge and Roger Patterson, Timothy McCabe contributes analyses of various world religions and cults in this volume from Master Books.
"Are all presuppositions equally valid? If not, how does one determine which are more valid than others?"
Internal consistency is the most common method I know of for determining the truth value of presuppositions. The test of internal consistency is what presuppositional reasoning is all about. If, for example, a view presupposes "A" and "not-A" at the same time and in the same way, then, in that worldview, reasoning, knowledge, learning, meaning, morality, science, mathematics -- everything -- becomes utterly incoherent.
"Why doesn't prayer work, when the bible promises that it will (John 14:14, for example)?"
In John 14:14, Jesus says "If you ask Me anything in My name, I will do it." In modern western "Christian" culture, the idea of praying in Jesus' name is often understood to mean appending "...in Jesus' name" to the end of our prayers.
"Jesus explicitly says "Many will say to ME (Jesus) LORD LORD, on that day... and I will say to them Depart from here ye that work iniquity" Full context Matthew 7:21-23. What is the Christian's response?"
I'm sorry, but response to what, exactly? I'm really not sure what you are looking for in your question. Here is the full verse and a little more context: Matthew 7:21-27 (NASB) "Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter.